mammary carcinoma

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Clinical relevance of the CTLA-4 protein in cats with mammary carcinoma

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) serves an important role in breast cancer progression, which has led to the development of novel immunotherapies aimed at blocking tumor immune evasion. Although feline mammary carcinoma is increasingly recognized as a valuable cancer model, no studies on CTLA-4 function had been conducted in this species. The serum CTLA-4, TNF-α and IL-6 levels of 57 female cats with mammary carcinoma were determined by ELISA, and immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate CTLA-4 and FoxP3 expression in tumor cells and interstitial lymphocytes.